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The word "Manhattan" has been translated as "island of many hills" from the Lenape language.Lenape and New Netherland, to 1664 New Amsterdam British and Revolution, 1665–1783 Federal and early American, 1784–1854 Tammany and Consolidation, 1855–1897 (Civil War, 1861–1865) Early 20th century, 1898–1945 Post–World War II, 1946–1977 Modern and post-9/11, 1978– The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans.New York City played a complex role in the American Civil War.The city's strong commercial ties to the southern United States existed for many reasons, including the industrial power of the Hudson River harbor, which allowed trade with stops such as the West Point Foundry, one of the great manufacturing operations in the early United States; and the city's Atlantic Ocean ports, rendering New York City the American powerhouse in terms of industrial trade between the northern and southern United States.The new European immigration brought further social upheaval.
New York was the first capital under the newly enacted Constitution of the United States, from March 4, 1789, to August 12, 1790, at Federal Hall.
The Dutch Republic regained the city in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming it "New Orange".
New Netherland was ceded permanently to the English in November 1674 through the Treaty of Westminster, Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of major battles in the early American Revolutionary War.
New York grew as an economic center, first as a result of Alexander Hamilton's policies and practices as the first Secretary of the Treasury and, later, with the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, which connected the Atlantic port to the vast agricultural markets of the Midwestern United States and Canada.
Tammany Hall, a Democratic Party political machine, began to grow in influence with the support of many of the immigrant Irish, culminating in the election of the first Tammany mayor, Fernando Wood, in 1854. Central Park, which opened to the public in 1858, became the first landscaped public park in an American city.